Pythagoras is the well-known to all of us Greek philosopher, mathematician, geometry teacher and music theorist. It is rumored that he was born around 570 BC and he originates Samos Island. According to some myths Pythagoras was reportedly as the son of God Apollo, thanks to his natural beauty and the respect he was inspiring even to older than him citizens. Pythagoras created a comprehensive system for the science of celestial bodies and was the founder of a philosophical movement, Pythagorism.
The main occupation of Pythagoras, was the guidance of a ” Society ”. This ” society” was a secret religious movement, which had developed intense political activity. According to Pythagoras, clearance constituted a ” key ” to the understanding of religion and science. Thus, the patterns that continuous the Pythagorean movement, are the ideas of the ‘‘World ‘‘and the ” catharsis ”, science and religion.
This movement drew a distinction of strict discipline and mysticism, so it was difficult for someone to become a member. It is evident through this movement that the Pythagoreans believed in the theory of reincarnation, like the Orphic “members”. Sources, which we receive from the Diogenes Laertius, indicate that Pythagoras was the first who asserted that the soul, passing through the cycles of need, lived several times in different living creatures and that he also explained his student’s past lives, if they had only purified their souls through his exercises and practices.
Nevertheless, the Pythagoreans not only accepted reincarnation, but they also taught that the soul was embodied in the material world in order to gain new experiences and to escape the mistakes of past lives. Based on the Pythagorean religion, the human soul finally manages to break free of the vicious cycle of repeated births when through the ‘remembrance’ conquers divine awareness.
The Pythagoreans also were the first to systematically involve with mathematics and while philosophizing the concepts of the numbers, they professed that they express the essence of all things and the proportions of the universe, which they first called ” world ”. They considered that the essence of beings was the ‘number’, something abstract, which was not understood by the senses, but only through the cognition. For the Pythagoreans the essence was rendered conceivable and imaginable only with abstract thinking. They introduced, namely, the concept of ” matter ” which was considered as the element that resisted in every definition and source of each ontological and moral imperfection. However it is noted that the Pythagoreans gave to infinity also some moral status, in the sense that they considered the ‘perfect end’ ‘good, while the’ ‘incomplete infinite’ ‘bad.
Pythagoras taught that the entire universe is an entity in mathematical order. Everything is divided in threes. As regards to the universe it is divided into three worlds:
1. The supreme, a thin substance which was the true scope of the unit
2. Maximum, the world of the immortals
3. The lower, of mortal gods, of demons, of humans, of animals and of all material things.
Living beings have a triune nature (body, soul, spirit).
Pythagoras, as a mathematician of course, drew a distinction of numbers in even numbers, which because they allow the ad infinitum division, they are considered to be imperfect and in odd numbers, which are presenting a beginning, a middle and an end and are considered to be more perfect. According to his opinion, the numbers are sacred because they are the essence of the world.
In conclusion, therefore, the unit (1) symbolizes the spirit, the power from which everything is originated, the doublet (2) denotes the two types of the substance, the earth and the water, and finally the triple (3) indicates the time in all three dimensions (present, past, future). So in this way it appears that from the unit and from the indefinite dyad numbers are made. From the numbers we have the points. From the points the lines, of which all levels are formed, and the levels in their turn the stars.