Category Archives: Folklore

Minotaur – A Myth or Reality?


One of my favorite myths is the journey of Theseus in the Minoan Crete. That journey had as a purpose to put an end to the death toll that the Athenians owed for many years in the king of Crete, Minoa. What happens though, if it is not only a myth? A majority of people is only aware that the story begins when the Athenians lost the war against the king of Crete Minoa. So, Minos as a forfeiture sets the sacrifice of seven young Athenian girls and boys to Minotaur. That would happen every single year.

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According to the myth the Minotaur was born by the union of Pasiphae (Minoa’s wife) with the white Taurus, which she deeply fall in love with. The result of this union was a creature with a Taurus head and a human body. When Minotaur was born king Minoa asked from the most creative engineer of all ages, Daedalus, to build a labyrinth where he would imprison the Minotaur. In that way Athenians, because of their loss, they were forced to sacrifice 14 young citizens to Minotaur. The son though of the Athenian’s king, Theseus, decides make the Journey to Crete, kill Minotaur and set free his home place from that bloody sacrifice.

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Having arrived in Crete Theseus, falls in love with the beautiful Ariadne, daughter of Minoa. She accepts to help him under one term. Only if he promises her that he would take her with him to Athens. The young Theseus agrees and she gives him the famous Ariadne’s thread. Theseus finally kills the Minotaur and by following the thread he finds his way out of the labyrinth. Here though it comes the question that we put under conversation before. What if the myth of Theseus it is not just a fantastic fairytale, but there is also a big dose of truth in it?

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The archaeological excavations revealed in the island the ancient city and the palace of Knossos in which according to the myth must have been placed the labyrinth. The city was built in the Bronze Age and reached the ultimate point in the 18th century. In that era the palace was built with extend of 200 acres. Almost 1.000 rooms were built, and in that way the palace looked like a labyrinth.

In 1979 in the northern ward of the palace, were revealed the full skeletons of 4 people. We assume that they belong to children. The analysis that the bones were passed through showed that the bones had hits either by blade either by fags. The experts concluded that the hits left wounds where the flesh separates from the bones. Obviously children were sacrificed first and then got eaten.

In the western ward of the palace, now, where found 3 skeletons. The one of them belonged to an 18 year-old-men. The skeleton was found lying on an altar in the room with the spears. His feet were tied and the young man finally died from a hit to the heart with a bronze knife. In the place near the altar there was a special column of gutter, so the blood from the victim’s wounds to drip. From a study is demonstrated that the young man died from loss of blood. In the same area was found the skeletons of a 28 year-old woman as well as the skeleton of a 40 year-old man. Another skeleton was found in the same building, had such severe damage, the researchers they only thing they were able to determine is that it belonged to a man. The human sacrifices took place during the period of decline in the Minoan Crete. Most of times children were sacrificed, thing which formed the basis for the myth of Minotaur.

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What I love especially in the myths is that the interpretation is connected to real life, in human acts, passions and deepest desires. Thus, the killing of the Minotaur symbolizes the end of human sacrifice. The labyrinth, on the other, is the thought, the very nature of the human beings. Complicated, supposedly easy to traverse, tough interpreted and difficult someone reaches the exit. The ones that have entered without methodical thought and dynamic spirit, died. Theseus symbolizes the man, who controls himself, his thought and his passions. For other persons like, Minos, Pasiphae and Daedalus, these are symbols of desire and deception.

Alexandra Zevgiti

Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.
Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.

The Origins of Ancient Symbols and their Meaning (Part 1) – The Star of Venus, Pentagram


We have already talked about the Delphic Epsilon so I thought that it would be quite interesting to penetrate in the beginning of other ancient symbols as well .Within the next connections that we will keep through Literatology, I will try to present you a series of ancient symbols and secrets, which have been preserved over the centuries.
kudurrTo talk about the symbols and understand their contribution during the centuries, we must first understand their natural origin. When we refer to symbols we talk about a code for a condensed image of limitless elements.
One of these symbols, which will be the first of these series, is the star of Venus, or best known to all as “the five-pointed” otherwise pentagram. It is a misunderstood symbol, as by its nature is a symbol of balance, health and protection. In our days though, however, it is connected with the worship of Satan, causing in that way a feeling of abhorrence.
To understand the meaning of the symbols, as we already have said, we must study their origins.
The five-pointed star is rumored to be originated around 4000 BC in the areas near Tiger and Effratis River. It is believed αρχείο λήψηςthat the symbol refers to astronomical studies of that era. Later on it was found in 2700 BC in some Sumerian civilization, symbolizing the four cardinal points with the sky. Amongst other things, it is associated with the planet Aphrodite. That is because the years of this planet are completed in every five years.
The pentagram is a perfect shaped geometric symbol. It is very complex, as it represents the convergence of several lines. It is harmonious because all angles form a symmetrical whole, and particularly dynamic, as it represents sharp corners that tend outwards.
We say that the pentagram is extremely misunderstood, because as mentioned above, by its nature it symbolizes

Giordano Bruno Campo dei Fiori.jpg
Giordano Bruno Campo dei Fiori.jpg

health and balance. To be more extensive, therefore, it also represents the full and able-bodied man. That is why the Pythagoreans from 400 BC sealed their letters with a pentagram together with the word Health. Affected by the tactics of the Pythagoreans, Giordano Bruno (1591) places inside the five-pointed star a human body with its legs and arms open.
The history of the Pentagram is found in many cultures, civilizations as well as in many nations’ flags. That can be noticed in the US flag and in Turkey’s flag as well. Also, in Chinese culture, the Pentagram symbolizes the five elements of life: water, metal, earth, fire, wood, while in Latin America it can be found in the form of flowers.
It is said that its protective strength solidifies when it is placed within a circle. In that way, there are combined the individual elements of a human.
The significance of this symbol was not tainted until the 16th century. It wasn’t combined with the negative magic, because it symbolized perfection. In the book of Bruno that is referring the unit, there is a man within an inverted pentagram with his anton-szandor-laveyback reversed and able to be seen by the reader. This man seems to be the fallen Adam. Thoughts like the above ones, with the inverted pentacle, led occultists of the 19th century to connect the inverted pentagram with the cult of Evil. They also added a goat inside the Pentagram thus forming the hideous stamp of the devil Leviathan, which was endorsed by the church of Satan by Anton Szandor LaVey in 1969.
The real importance and meaning of the Pentagram is more pure, free from the cult of of the devil. In reality it is the most beautiful flower of unity and protection from witchcraft.
I hope that reading about this symbol was an enjoyable enough. I promise you that continuity of these series of the “Symbols” will be exciting.

Alexandra Zevgiti

Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.
Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.

Samhain or Halloween?


Because the 31st of October is near, I thought it would be nice to write something about, the celebration of the Eve known widely as Halloween. Halloween is the typical name for that great celebration of the pagan and Wiccan religions. It is true name is Samhain, who was and old Celtic God and we will discuss about it bellow. It is a common phenomenon that day, kids to dress up like witches, Snap-Apple_Night_globalphilosophywolves, mummies and like other creatures that exist in fairytales, even in the imagination in anyone’s mind’ then walking by door to door and asking the famous question: “trick or treat?”, for exchange they are getting sweets from the house keepers in order not to be frighten by they dressed up children. But that is a modern tradition that establish around the 1940`s. The point is that the Halloween that we know today has that specific form totally different from its exact meaning and importance. So, what do we truly know about Samhain and even Halloween?

Let’s take things with a row. At first, the tradition of the kids that are walking from door to door asking for sweets, has started (?) in Great Britain and Ireland but with a total different character and even meaning. It was the known “Souling”. In the “Souling”, children and poor people, were visiting the houses and would sing and say celtic-halloweenprayers for the dead, while the housekeeper in return would give them cakes. That custom was really famous since the 18th century. It is easy to conclude that even during the 18th century the Halloween was an eve dedicated to the dead people and ancestors. With a few words, really close to its true meaning.

According to Celtic mythology Samhain was one of the Celtic Gods. It was the one that was related and worshiped as the God of the Dead, although some rumors of the Catholic church are disputing that and claim that is another chance of the pagans to celebrate. It hasn’t been established by accident the 1st of November as a day of

Invokation To The Crone At Samhain
Invokation To The Crone At Samhain

all saints. For the saints that didn’t have a day that their names would be celebrated already. That happened around the middle of the 18th century. The pagans that lived in the area used to celebrate the Samhain anyway, so the 1st of November suddenly appeared to be related with the celebrations of the pagans anyway. The masses which was said on All Saints’ was called Allhallowmas – which actually means the mass of all those who are hallowed. The night before naturally became known as All Hallows Eve, and eventually morphed into what we call Halloween. That is why we use the name Halloween.

The true meaning of Samhain is total different and much deeper than that. The Sabat of Samhain is believed to be the most appropriate day to honor the ancestors that existed before you even do. That is of course why, the veil with the living world and the world of the dead is thinner than any other day of the year. So, according to the pagans that is the right day to contact the spirit world, if you willing to do it anyway. It is also believed to be the most dark day time of the whole year.

According tough to the Celtic diary, the sunset of Samhain is the begging of a new year. It normal such a thing if we consider that the autumn is getting to an end and the winter is coming. Which means that the earth is starting to die and the nature is also in a dying state.

www.sacredfire.net
http://www.sacredfire.net

The days are having less light in that time of year while the nights are getting bigger. So, with the end of all nature related things for a season, comes the end of the year. That is of course related also with the day of the dead. That Sabat is to honor the dead in order not to have anything left to be done, before the New Year begins.

Whatever, it is Samhain meaning is, it is for sure a great and lovely celebration. For the pagans it is their day time to cast spells and contact the spirit world, reaching a high level of spirituality in that way, while for the rest of people is a way to spend money and haveSamhain_by_TristJones as well fun, they and their little kids. In my opinion it is cruel thing for anyone’s philosophy and religion to end up like a commercial celebration while in reality is such a sacred day. In anything that is religion related respect must be shown. In any religion. In the end wisdom and stupidity is two totally different things.

 

Nikoleta Vemvetsou

 

Nikoleta Vemvetsou is 19 years old and she is currently studying History & Archaeology in the University of Ioannina, which was a childhood’s dream as she recalls. She writes articles on various topics including history, arcaeology, literature, poetry and more, in many blogs, newspapers and magazines as well as her own poetry. She is the co-founder of Literatology and also a co-chief editor of the Literatology team.
Nikoleta Vemvetsou is 19 years old and she is currently studying History & Archaeology in the University of Ioannina, which was a childhood’s dream as she recalls. She writes articles on various topics including history, arcaeology, literature, poetry and more, in many blogs, newspapers and magazines as well as her own poetry. She is the co-founder of Literatology and also a co-chief editor of the Literatology team.

Myths or Reality


We used to listen to stories, while we were kids. Before we go to sleep, in our free time, in order to entertain ourselves. We used to like the stories, and let ourselves dream about the beautiful Helen of Troy, the mythical Maenads, and the powerful Zeus. In the case that something of the all above frightened us, it was simple enough, to run towards our mother and she would calm us down, by saying, “relax, it is nothing more but just a fairytale”. Then we would be able to sleep again, and be calm, and sure that nothing of the things in the fairytales, whether it is good or bad, does not exist, just because of that. Fairytales, mythology call it however you want does not exist in the real world. That is what our parents taught us, that the fairytales, are nothing more than creations of a spotless mind. In the very end, we learn not to believe in such things, like mythical cities, weird creatures and even Gods.

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What if though, the fairytales, turn out to be true? What if all of the things that we have read about or even heard of, existed somehow in a way? What if? A million questions, without any logical or even stable answer. It is said that the human mind cannot make up something of its own, but it needs, something to be leading it to any image conclusion or any possible story.

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Troy is one of the very best examples that the myth came true. There was no one to believe that the great Troy existed and that famous Trojan War took place ever. Almost everyone used to take as granted that a tale like Iliad and Odyssey were far too good to be true. Homer’s existence was also doubted (thing that has not changed, even until today). Until a crazy man appeared from literally nowhere. Mr. Heinrich Schliemann. He was not even a professional archaeologist he was just a passionate man with the ancient Greece and civilization. He performed several archaeological excavations including the ones in Ithaka, Troy and Mycenae. He brought into the light several things that were making the claiming of all those centuries about the Trojan War even stronger. He finally brought into the light the city of Troy that Hector and many others died. The story and myth of all those centuries and eras became true, became history.

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With that little example, there is proof of a case that a fairytale, became the one of the most important discoveries in the 20th century. We have to think critically. What if this? What if that? And we should never exclude any possibility. What if the Nemea Lion, that according to the myth Hercules killed, existed? I mean dinosaurs, as well existed, but they had, distinguished from the planet earth because of the climate changes. What if the Harpies existed, and just vanished during the passage of centuries? Who knows, maybe sometime, a crazy man like Heinrich Schliemann, will prove the myths right, making them pure history.

Nikoleta Vemvetsou is 19 years old and she is currently studying History & Archaeology in the University of Ioannina, which was a childhood’s dream as she recalls. She writes articles on various topics including history, arcaeology, literature, poetry and more, in many blogs, newspapers and magazines as well as her own poetry. She is the co-founder of Literatology and also a co-chief editor of the Literatology team.
Nikoleta Vemvetsou is 19 years old and she is currently studying History & Archaeology in the University of Ioannina, which was a childhood’s dream as she recalls. She writes articles on various topics including history, arcaeology, literature, poetry and more, in many blogs, newspapers and magazines as well as her own poetry. She is the co-founder of Literatology and also a co-chief editor of the Literatology team.