Category Archives: History

Minotaur – A Myth or Reality?


One of my favorite myths is the journey of Theseus in the Minoan Crete. That journey had as a purpose to put an end to the death toll that the Athenians owed for many years in the king of Crete, Minoa. What happens though, if it is not only a myth? A majority of people is only aware that the story begins when the Athenians lost the war against the king of Crete Minoa. So, Minos as a forfeiture sets the sacrifice of seven young Athenian girls and boys to Minotaur. That would happen every single year.

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According to the myth the Minotaur was born by the union of Pasiphae (Minoa’s wife) with the white Taurus, which she deeply fall in love with. The result of this union was a creature with a Taurus head and a human body. When Minotaur was born king Minoa asked from the most creative engineer of all ages, Daedalus, to build a labyrinth where he would imprison the Minotaur. In that way Athenians, because of their loss, they were forced to sacrifice 14 young citizens to Minotaur. The son though of the Athenian’s king, Theseus, decides make the Journey to Crete, kill Minotaur and set free his home place from that bloody sacrifice.

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Having arrived in Crete Theseus, falls in love with the beautiful Ariadne, daughter of Minoa. She accepts to help him under one term. Only if he promises her that he would take her with him to Athens. The young Theseus agrees and she gives him the famous Ariadne’s thread. Theseus finally kills the Minotaur and by following the thread he finds his way out of the labyrinth. Here though it comes the question that we put under conversation before. What if the myth of Theseus it is not just a fantastic fairytale, but there is also a big dose of truth in it?

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The archaeological excavations revealed in the island the ancient city and the palace of Knossos in which according to the myth must have been placed the labyrinth. The city was built in the Bronze Age and reached the ultimate point in the 18th century. In that era the palace was built with extend of 200 acres. Almost 1.000 rooms were built, and in that way the palace looked like a labyrinth.

In 1979 in the northern ward of the palace, were revealed the full skeletons of 4 people. We assume that they belong to children. The analysis that the bones were passed through showed that the bones had hits either by blade either by fags. The experts concluded that the hits left wounds where the flesh separates from the bones. Obviously children were sacrificed first and then got eaten.

In the western ward of the palace, now, where found 3 skeletons. The one of them belonged to an 18 year-old-men. The skeleton was found lying on an altar in the room with the spears. His feet were tied and the young man finally died from a hit to the heart with a bronze knife. In the place near the altar there was a special column of gutter, so the blood from the victim’s wounds to drip. From a study is demonstrated that the young man died from loss of blood. In the same area was found the skeletons of a 28 year-old woman as well as the skeleton of a 40 year-old man. Another skeleton was found in the same building, had such severe damage, the researchers they only thing they were able to determine is that it belonged to a man. The human sacrifices took place during the period of decline in the Minoan Crete. Most of times children were sacrificed, thing which formed the basis for the myth of Minotaur.

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What I love especially in the myths is that the interpretation is connected to real life, in human acts, passions and deepest desires. Thus, the killing of the Minotaur symbolizes the end of human sacrifice. The labyrinth, on the other, is the thought, the very nature of the human beings. Complicated, supposedly easy to traverse, tough interpreted and difficult someone reaches the exit. The ones that have entered without methodical thought and dynamic spirit, died. Theseus symbolizes the man, who controls himself, his thought and his passions. For other persons like, Minos, Pasiphae and Daedalus, these are symbols of desire and deception.

Alexandra Zevgiti

Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.
Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.

The Origins of Ancient Symbols and their Meaning (Part 1) – The Star of Venus, Pentagram


We have already talked about the Delphic Epsilon so I thought that it would be quite interesting to penetrate in the beginning of other ancient symbols as well .Within the next connections that we will keep through Literatology, I will try to present you a series of ancient symbols and secrets, which have been preserved over the centuries.
kudurrTo talk about the symbols and understand their contribution during the centuries, we must first understand their natural origin. When we refer to symbols we talk about a code for a condensed image of limitless elements.
One of these symbols, which will be the first of these series, is the star of Venus, or best known to all as “the five-pointed” otherwise pentagram. It is a misunderstood symbol, as by its nature is a symbol of balance, health and protection. In our days though, however, it is connected with the worship of Satan, causing in that way a feeling of abhorrence.
To understand the meaning of the symbols, as we already have said, we must study their origins.
The five-pointed star is rumored to be originated around 4000 BC in the areas near Tiger and Effratis River. It is believed αρχείο λήψηςthat the symbol refers to astronomical studies of that era. Later on it was found in 2700 BC in some Sumerian civilization, symbolizing the four cardinal points with the sky. Amongst other things, it is associated with the planet Aphrodite. That is because the years of this planet are completed in every five years.
The pentagram is a perfect shaped geometric symbol. It is very complex, as it represents the convergence of several lines. It is harmonious because all angles form a symmetrical whole, and particularly dynamic, as it represents sharp corners that tend outwards.
We say that the pentagram is extremely misunderstood, because as mentioned above, by its nature it symbolizes

Giordano Bruno Campo dei Fiori.jpg
Giordano Bruno Campo dei Fiori.jpg

health and balance. To be more extensive, therefore, it also represents the full and able-bodied man. That is why the Pythagoreans from 400 BC sealed their letters with a pentagram together with the word Health. Affected by the tactics of the Pythagoreans, Giordano Bruno (1591) places inside the five-pointed star a human body with its legs and arms open.
The history of the Pentagram is found in many cultures, civilizations as well as in many nations’ flags. That can be noticed in the US flag and in Turkey’s flag as well. Also, in Chinese culture, the Pentagram symbolizes the five elements of life: water, metal, earth, fire, wood, while in Latin America it can be found in the form of flowers.
It is said that its protective strength solidifies when it is placed within a circle. In that way, there are combined the individual elements of a human.
The significance of this symbol was not tainted until the 16th century. It wasn’t combined with the negative magic, because it symbolized perfection. In the book of Bruno that is referring the unit, there is a man within an inverted pentagram with his anton-szandor-laveyback reversed and able to be seen by the reader. This man seems to be the fallen Adam. Thoughts like the above ones, with the inverted pentacle, led occultists of the 19th century to connect the inverted pentagram with the cult of Evil. They also added a goat inside the Pentagram thus forming the hideous stamp of the devil Leviathan, which was endorsed by the church of Satan by Anton Szandor LaVey in 1969.
The real importance and meaning of the Pentagram is more pure, free from the cult of of the devil. In reality it is the most beautiful flower of unity and protection from witchcraft.
I hope that reading about this symbol was an enjoyable enough. I promise you that continuity of these series of the “Symbols” will be exciting.

Alexandra Zevgiti

Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.
Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.

Unless you lived History, read it – Dido Sotiriou & History


All of us can change the float of History. When? All those times when we decide to distance ourselves from the present time, all those days that we accept the mistakes of peoples as a result of all human nature. All the times that by being objective, we see the history of peoples as a unified universe and we only have the need to look to the future.

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A Trip Without Return by Dido Sotiriou

History is written every day, is passing and is lost beside us, is woven for us and by us. Such an approach is not utopian. We are born notable, so that we can lend something more to that already exists. This is where lies the secret of the world and of the independence, on the target and the creation.

Numerous times the books offer an unprecedented awakening. But…

How long ago did you read something that agitated you really, that prevented you to get out of the rhythm of its pages, which drove you to a sleepless night?

Literature is not just entertainment. It’s the way to live countless lives with the same person. Like young outcast viewers.

It took me so many years to understand that some books are part of my self and of my mind and that their authors are not only talented, but also parts of history.

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There will be none that I could compare with Dido Sotiriou. Her writing sample is remarkable. Not only because she was just excessively gifted but also because everything that exists in her books is a distillate of life, of a true and distressed soul which gives people something of its own history.

Regardless of beliefs, mindsets and torques, Dido Sotiriou is presented to the reader through her ​​books. And she often takes a sacred form. Not because she is a writer, not because you realize that she exudes pure personal experience through her stories, but for all the reasons that you stand in silence in front of those who have lived what you now hear and you tremble for.

It’s easy to learn the facts, it is easy to speak about them scientifically, but it is not easy to follow the Greek postwar History through a live narration.

In her book “Mandate” Dido Sotiriou is conveyed to a past that we prefer to let forgotten. She talks about a series of post-Civil War conflicts, for a continuous injustice and abolition of freedom and life. In her “Mandate” she then speaks of a Greece that we all strive to tuck away. The place of the division, of contradictions and of intrigue.

In that book you ache with those who ache. Because books magically eliminate space and time. And when the persons are real, and when the heroes still exist, you read and you read in order to bring catharsis some time. To feel that fair prevailed, the right thing.

The narratives are peculiar however in life. In the case indeed, who get the importance of historical testimony, then they rarely end with a desired manner.

What I will not forget is that Dido Sotiriou succeeds in all of her works to harmonize war and division with all aspects of life. She misses none. Even into the darkness flashes of life and love occur. But the most beautiful element in her writing and in the spirit of that, is that so strongly she integrates you on the psyche and the roles of the heroes. She initiates you to the images (1)injustice of the world, and in the end, so knowingly, she leaves you torn. You stand alone to toss about who won and who was eventually the victim. That’s because history operates with precision mechanisms. The heroes, the aggrieved ones or even the bold ones are gilded even after years. She leaves the abusers living by carrying their own stigmata. Never the victims are obvious.

Unless you lived history, read it, learn what happened in the streets you walk. What orders were taken in the language you speak. Do not learn history for others, learn it for yourself, for all those days that you will need to look back to appreciate and protect what’s already gained. Remember: if now the world is unrighteous, there was certainly a time that it was much worse. The solution lies on impulse.

Rafaela Maneli

Rafaela Maneli is studying Communication and MEDIA at the University of Athens, she loves writing and reading books by a very young age. It is above all an instrument of psychotherapy and contact as she usually says. She has participated and won the national competition of poetry of the Hellenic Literature Union and as she grows up she is trying to write as much as possible. ..
Rafaela Maneli is studying Communication and MEDIA at the University of Athens, she loves writing and reading books by a very young age. It is above all an instrument of psychotherapy and contact as she usually says. She has participated and won the national competition of poetry of the Hellenic Literature Union and as she grows up she is trying to write as much as possible. ..

You Can find the original text written by Rafaela Maneli in Greek Language right underneath

Continue reading Unless you lived History, read it – Dido Sotiriou & History

The Delphic Epsilon


It is truly admirable within the meaning of admire and wonder at the same time, that a letter of the alphabet is by itself a topic of great discussions. The atmosphere surrounding the letter epsilon, and by extension the Delphic epsilon, as it is called, is very mystical.

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The Delphic Epsilon was placed at the top of the pediment of the temple of Apollo at Delphi and it was accompanied the known to everyone “know thyself” and “Meden Agan” in the lower right corner of the same pediment.

The letter epsilon as a symbol, for the uninitiated, is directly related to the Delphic solar rituals, the initiation and more simply, of man to the light. Therefore, its placement at the top of the pediment of the temple of Apollo declares the perpetual relationship with the light, the perfection and therefore epsilon indicates the luminous. We understand that this is thus the key for all the Delphic mysteries.

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The only information that we have, come from Ploutarchos, and this because the disclosure to someone uninitiated was a morale and criminal offense. From Pythagoras we know that the letter epsilon as a number is denoted by five. The interest in my opinion on this is that the number five stands for the four cosmological elements, such as land, air, water and fire with the quintessential of ether. And I say interesting because, all of the above mentioned synthesize human.

By analyzing further the letter epsilon, we find that it is the second of letters, of those having voice and it declares Apollo, the second largest after the god Zeus. On the other hand the number five indicates the concept of numbers as a “fifth” and thus is expressed the Pythagorean view that the number is the first and the ultimate cause of all things and that God eternally geometrizes.

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According to Plutarchos, therefore, who is also our only source, as I have already stated, the unit is common in power in both species. This happens because if the unit is added to any number, makes the even number an odd and the odd number an even. Number two, on the other hand is the first even number and number three is the first odd. Therefore, the sum of these two numbers gives an excellent value, because as a first number it consists of first numbers and has been called by the Pythagoreans a marriage, because of the similarity with the unifying relationship, of even numbers to the woman and of odd numbers to the man.

Something else that we also find, is that by none mixture of them, not an even number is born, but always an odd number and never an even number when added to it even creates an odd number, but neither comes by nature, than just the inability to give birth to another. We understand, however, that if odd numbers are added to odd numbers generate many even numbers. All of the above mentioned is due to the understanding of the relationship with Apollo’s epsilon. The common point lies exactly in that Apollo is praised as eternal and indestructible, in correspondence with the epsilon (five) which if multiplied by itself it always ends in himself or in tens. And this is done indefinitely.

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Finally, I would like to point out that behind the Greek language lies an entire philosophical system. The Greek language is the Word, and the Word is expressed ambiguous and proportionally to countless scaled levels.

Alexandra Zevgiti

Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.
Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.

Samhain or Halloween?


Because the 31st of October is near, I thought it would be nice to write something about, the celebration of the Eve known widely as Halloween. Halloween is the typical name for that great celebration of the pagan and Wiccan religions. It is true name is Samhain, who was and old Celtic God and we will discuss about it bellow. It is a common phenomenon that day, kids to dress up like witches, Snap-Apple_Night_globalphilosophywolves, mummies and like other creatures that exist in fairytales, even in the imagination in anyone’s mind’ then walking by door to door and asking the famous question: “trick or treat?”, for exchange they are getting sweets from the house keepers in order not to be frighten by they dressed up children. But that is a modern tradition that establish around the 1940`s. The point is that the Halloween that we know today has that specific form totally different from its exact meaning and importance. So, what do we truly know about Samhain and even Halloween?

Let’s take things with a row. At first, the tradition of the kids that are walking from door to door asking for sweets, has started (?) in Great Britain and Ireland but with a total different character and even meaning. It was the known “Souling”. In the “Souling”, children and poor people, were visiting the houses and would sing and say celtic-halloweenprayers for the dead, while the housekeeper in return would give them cakes. That custom was really famous since the 18th century. It is easy to conclude that even during the 18th century the Halloween was an eve dedicated to the dead people and ancestors. With a few words, really close to its true meaning.

According to Celtic mythology Samhain was one of the Celtic Gods. It was the one that was related and worshiped as the God of the Dead, although some rumors of the Catholic church are disputing that and claim that is another chance of the pagans to celebrate. It hasn’t been established by accident the 1st of November as a day of

Invokation To The Crone At Samhain
Invokation To The Crone At Samhain

all saints. For the saints that didn’t have a day that their names would be celebrated already. That happened around the middle of the 18th century. The pagans that lived in the area used to celebrate the Samhain anyway, so the 1st of November suddenly appeared to be related with the celebrations of the pagans anyway. The masses which was said on All Saints’ was called Allhallowmas – which actually means the mass of all those who are hallowed. The night before naturally became known as All Hallows Eve, and eventually morphed into what we call Halloween. That is why we use the name Halloween.

The true meaning of Samhain is total different and much deeper than that. The Sabat of Samhain is believed to be the most appropriate day to honor the ancestors that existed before you even do. That is of course why, the veil with the living world and the world of the dead is thinner than any other day of the year. So, according to the pagans that is the right day to contact the spirit world, if you willing to do it anyway. It is also believed to be the most dark day time of the whole year.

According tough to the Celtic diary, the sunset of Samhain is the begging of a new year. It normal such a thing if we consider that the autumn is getting to an end and the winter is coming. Which means that the earth is starting to die and the nature is also in a dying state.

www.sacredfire.net
http://www.sacredfire.net

The days are having less light in that time of year while the nights are getting bigger. So, with the end of all nature related things for a season, comes the end of the year. That is of course related also with the day of the dead. That Sabat is to honor the dead in order not to have anything left to be done, before the New Year begins.

Whatever, it is Samhain meaning is, it is for sure a great and lovely celebration. For the pagans it is their day time to cast spells and contact the spirit world, reaching a high level of spirituality in that way, while for the rest of people is a way to spend money and haveSamhain_by_TristJones as well fun, they and their little kids. In my opinion it is cruel thing for anyone’s philosophy and religion to end up like a commercial celebration while in reality is such a sacred day. In anything that is religion related respect must be shown. In any religion. In the end wisdom and stupidity is two totally different things.

 

Nikoleta Vemvetsou

 

Nikoleta Vemvetsou is 19 years old and she is currently studying History & Archaeology in the University of Ioannina, which was a childhood’s dream as she recalls. She writes articles on various topics including history, arcaeology, literature, poetry and more, in many blogs, newspapers and magazines as well as her own poetry. She is the co-founder of Literatology and also a co-chief editor of the Literatology team.
Nikoleta Vemvetsou is 19 years old and she is currently studying History & Archaeology in the University of Ioannina, which was a childhood’s dream as she recalls. She writes articles on various topics including history, arcaeology, literature, poetry and more, in many blogs, newspapers and magazines as well as her own poetry. She is the co-founder of Literatology and also a co-chief editor of the Literatology team.

Pythagoreans Teaching of the Universe


Pythagoras is the well-known to all of us Greek philosopher, mathematician, geometry teacher and music theorist. It is rumored Kapitolinischer_Pythagoras_adjustedthat he was born around 570 BC and he originates Samos Island. According to some myths Pythagoras was reportedly as the son of God Apollo, thanks to his natural beauty and the respect he was inspiring even to older than him citizens. Pythagoras created a comprehensive system for the science of celestial bodies and was the founder of a philosophical movement, Pythagorism.

The main occupation of Pythagoras, was the guidance of a ” Society ”. This ” society” was a secret religious movement, which had developed intense political activity. According to Pythagoras, clearance constituted a ” key ” to the understanding of religion and science. Thus, the patterns that continuous the Pythagorean movement, are the ideas of the ‘‘World ‘‘and the ” catharsis ”, science and religion.

This movement drew a distinction of strict discipline and mysticism, so it was difficult for someone to become a member. It is evident through this movement that the Pythagoreans believed in the Sanzio_01_Pythagorastheory of reincarnation, like the Orphic “members”. Sources, which we receive from the Diogenes Laertius, indicate that Pythagoras was the first who asserted that the soul, passing through the cycles of need, lived several times in different living creatures and that he also explained his student’s past lives, if they had only purified their souls through his exercises and practices.

Nevertheless, the Pythagoreans not only accepted reincarnation, but they also taught that the soul was embodied in the material world in order to gain new experiences and to escape the mistakes of past lives. Based on the Pythagorean religion, the human soul finally manages to break free of the vicious cycle of repeated births when through the ‘remembrance’ conquers divine awareness.

The Pythagoreans also were the first to systematically involve with mathematics and while philosophizing the concepts of the numbers, they professed that they express the essence of all things and the Pythagoras-Münzproportions of the universe, which they first called ” world ”. They considered that the essence of beings was the ‘number’, something abstract, which was not understood by the senses, but only through the cognition. For the Pythagoreans the essence was rendered conceivable and imaginable only with abstract thinking. They introduced, namely, the concept of ” matter ” which was considered as the element that resisted in every definition and source of each ontological and moral imperfection. However it is noted that the Pythagoreans gave to infinity also some moral status, in the sense that they considered the ‘perfect end’ ‘good, while the’ ‘incomplete infinite’ ‘bad.

Pythagoras taught that the entire universe is an entity in mathematical order. Everything is divided in threes. As regards to the universe it is divided into three worlds:
1. The supreme, a thin substance which was the true scope of the unit
2. Maximum, the world of the immortals
3. The lower, of mortal gods, of demons, of humans, of animals and of all material things.
Living beings have a triune nature (body, soul, spirit).

Pythagoras, as a mathematician of course, drew a distinction of numbers in even numbers, which because they allow the ad infinitum division, they are considered to be imperfect and in odd numbers, which are presenting a beginning, a middle and an end and are considered to be more perfect. According to his opinion, the Bronnikov_gimnpifagoreizevnumbers are sacred because they are the essence of the world.
In conclusion, therefore, the unit (1) symbolizes the spirit, the power from which everything is originated, the doublet (2) denotes the two types of the substance, the earth and the water, and finally the triple (3) indicates the time in all three dimensions (present, past, future). So in this way it appears that from the unit and from the indefinite dyad numbers are made. From the numbers we have the points. From the points the lines, of which all levels are formed, and the levels in their turn the stars.

 

Alexandra Zevgiti

 

Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.
Alexandra Zevgiti is studying History and Archaeology in the University of Ioannina. She likes poetry, art & literature and she loves writing short stories and poems. As a member of Literatology she writes articles and short stories as well as some poems.

Kazantzakis – One Century of Humanism


I remember very well what the first thing that I learned from books was. I remember equally well from whom I was taught. Each writer is definitely different but we always have our own very subjective choice.

"Nikos Kazantzakis" από τον Μουσείο N. Καζαντζάκη / Kazantzakis Museum - http://www.kazantzakis-museum.gr/icon-detail.php?block_id=http://147.52.130.130/content/images/00441.jpg&parent_block_id=2369. Υπό την άδεια Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 μέσω Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nikos_Kazantzakis.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Nikos_Kazantzakis.jpg
“Nikos Kazantzakis” από τον Μουσείο N. Καζαντζάκη / Kazantzakis Museum – http://www.kazantzakis-museum.gr/icon-detail.php?block_id=http://147.52.130.130/content/images/00441.jpg&parent_block_id=2369. Υπό την άδεια Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 μέσω Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nikos_Kazantzakis.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Nikos_Kazantzakis.jpg

From the time when I was of a young age, I considered Nikos Kazantzakis as something profoundly utopian, a man who never existed and never died; for me is aura! He achieved in his own unique way, what the authors are eternally struggling to achieve; immortality and change.

There is no need to be young enough or older enough in order to read Kazantzakis. It’s not as abstruse as a lot of people want to present him. It is hardly straightforward, if I can use a term like this, because for the heroes of his works, you have to descend to the most rugged layers of your soul.

Every writer comes to our life as a juncture and commonly by choice. Sometimes he/she affects us and other times he/she is forgotten, or simply left for a reprocessing at a more appropriate time.

Books are not only the content, the characters and the stories. In fictional narratives the one who is “pulling the mind”, is the author himself, who manages to complicate notions of the world, within a few words.

If it is to come….

If you ever read Kazantzakis, do not be scared in the beginning by his bizarre writing and from his own words, remember that speaks a language above all social. It is not the Hellenicity of his writing that sweetens the reader but this literary aptitude that makes him capable of placing his characters in a multicultural spacetime. He puts them to speak a language that now lapses, but does not let them to lose the features of his culture. And primarily, he lets them be modern, as we are.
In his books, he creates the most naturalistic human societies, states that we often choose to forget due to their diversity. He reminds us that humans love each other if you put them together and grow big if you divide them. He accepts so natural the brutality of our nature, he places the man in the most dynamic position and feeds him by his weaknesses. Even God in Kazantzakis keeps the most beautiful dimension, becomes a sweet aura, nothing cryptic, but a simple human need, a form we created to alter our soul.
Kazantzakis talks about everything with a way we would like to hear, but he does no favor to us. His pen had the strength to reconcile the left political party with God and the white color with the black. He did not care what you are and who you are, but that you are a person, and even if you’re captious, you would calm down. Always born a poet who ached for the world with the most realistic way, a grounded idealist, a sweet proponent of all those who daily ask us to defend them. For him fair does not always win, but it’s worth trying for. Not because it will change something in the world, but because we would change our souls.
He made people out of soil, water and love. And he blew within the body humanity as well. He gave to the somatization the driving force which it deserved, and he loved woman more than anyone else. Every woman, of every age, and every woman’s body. He did equated love with youth and that is because in each of his writing pages maintains a sense of eternal hope.
He talked about everything, about what still divides us, for civil wars, for poverty, for the soul and authority in an objective and familiar way.

I could write for days. The only thing, though, which perhaps, is worth saying is that Kazantzakis is the writer of humanity. He taught me that well enough. Not of fatalism; in Kazantzakis works, there are no weak heroes that they walk in the shadows. He remains deeply poetic, he always finds people who fall and get up to go back as far as possible in the lifecycle. He is the one calling you to reach out to each other, not for him, especially for you. He is the most appropriate to tell the hymns of life and make you love the sand and the sun. He is somewhat whole, what people expressed through words only. He is the history, the love, the dance and the sin, all in an archetypal Greek mold.

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One and a half century of heaven and earth!

by Rafaela Maneli

Rafaela Maneli is studying Communication and MEDIA at the University of Athens, she loves writing and reading books by a very young age. It is above all an instrument of psychotherapy and contact as she usually says. She has participated and won the national competition of poetry of the Hellenic Literature Union and as she grows up she is trying to write as much as possible. ..
Rafaela Maneli is studying Communication and MEDIA at the University of Athens, she loves writing and reading books by a very young age. It is above all an instrument of psychotherapy and contact as she usually says. She has participated and won the national competition of poetry of the Hellenic Literature Union and as she grows up she is trying to write as much as possible. ..

You can find the original text version in Greek language right underneath…

Continue reading Kazantzakis – One Century of Humanism

Myths or Reality


We used to listen to stories, while we were kids. Before we go to sleep, in our free time, in order to entertain ourselves. We used to like the stories, and let ourselves dream about the beautiful Helen of Troy, the mythical Maenads, and the powerful Zeus. In the case that something of the all above frightened us, it was simple enough, to run towards our mother and she would calm us down, by saying, “relax, it is nothing more but just a fairytale”. Then we would be able to sleep again, and be calm, and sure that nothing of the things in the fairytales, whether it is good or bad, does not exist, just because of that. Fairytales, mythology call it however you want does not exist in the real world. That is what our parents taught us, that the fairytales, are nothing more than creations of a spotless mind. In the very end, we learn not to believe in such things, like mythical cities, weird creatures and even Gods.

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What if though, the fairytales, turn out to be true? What if all of the things that we have read about or even heard of, existed somehow in a way? What if? A million questions, without any logical or even stable answer. It is said that the human mind cannot make up something of its own, but it needs, something to be leading it to any image conclusion or any possible story.

Heinrich_Schliemann

Troy is one of the very best examples that the myth came true. There was no one to believe that the great Troy existed and that famous Trojan War took place ever. Almost everyone used to take as granted that a tale like Iliad and Odyssey were far too good to be true. Homer’s existence was also doubted (thing that has not changed, even until today). Until a crazy man appeared from literally nowhere. Mr. Heinrich Schliemann. He was not even a professional archaeologist he was just a passionate man with the ancient Greece and civilization. He performed several archaeological excavations including the ones in Ithaka, Troy and Mycenae. He brought into the light several things that were making the claiming of all those centuries about the Trojan War even stronger. He finally brought into the light the city of Troy that Hector and many others died. The story and myth of all those centuries and eras became true, became history.

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With that little example, there is proof of a case that a fairytale, became the one of the most important discoveries in the 20th century. We have to think critically. What if this? What if that? And we should never exclude any possibility. What if the Nemea Lion, that according to the myth Hercules killed, existed? I mean dinosaurs, as well existed, but they had, distinguished from the planet earth because of the climate changes. What if the Harpies existed, and just vanished during the passage of centuries? Who knows, maybe sometime, a crazy man like Heinrich Schliemann, will prove the myths right, making them pure history.

Nikoleta Vemvetsou is 19 years old and she is currently studying History & Archaeology in the University of Ioannina, which was a childhood’s dream as she recalls. She writes articles on various topics including history, arcaeology, literature, poetry and more, in many blogs, newspapers and magazines as well as her own poetry. She is the co-founder of Literatology and also a co-chief editor of the Literatology team.
Nikoleta Vemvetsou is 19 years old and she is currently studying History & Archaeology in the University of Ioannina, which was a childhood’s dream as she recalls. She writes articles on various topics including history, arcaeology, literature, poetry and more, in many blogs, newspapers and magazines as well as her own poetry. She is the co-founder of Literatology and also a co-chief editor of the Literatology team.

Homer – The foundation of all civilization


Homer
“Homer British Museum” by Originally from en.wikipedia; Original uploader was JW1805 at en.wikipedia. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Homer_British_Museum.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Homer_British_Museum.jpg

We are all familiarized with the great name Homer. Even we have never read the Iliad or the Odyssey, which are considered to be created by Homer, we still know his name and who he was, or at least we think we know. Homer is believed to be the “inventor” of literature as he actually influenced the literature in a great point. The Iliad and the Odyssey are called epic poems and the ancient Greeks had placed them, amongst other poems of that kind in order to educate their children. It is easy though to conclude that Homer and his epic poems were really famous in the ancient years, until today of course. But can we actually be certain about Homer and his great within the century creations? Let us have a quick look.

Homeric_Greece_el
“Homeric Greece el” από τον commons:User:Pinpin, modified by: Alexikoua – File:Homeric Greece.svgTransferred from el.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:MARKELLOS using CommonsHelper. Υπό την άδεια Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 μέσω Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Homeric_Greece_el.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Homeric_Greece_el.jpg

It is not yet defined when Homer lived. Many people claim that he lived in the 12 century BC close to the era that the Trojan War was held. Others claim that he lived between the 9th and the 8th century BC. The second opinion seems to be the most acceptable one, as Herodotus himself claimed the exact same thing. About Homer’s origin, things are getting a bit complicated. Chios island is one of the estimated places that Homer lived, the other place that claims the title of Homer’s birthplace is Ionia, more specifically, Smyrna. It is more likely though to have an Ionian origin, as firstly his name Homer which is a Greek name attested in the Aeolic speaking areas, which Ionia was a part of it. That is why in the islands of the eastern Aegean sea (which were close to Ionia), were residing people with Aeolic origin. It is normal though through the sea trading a good relationship to exist. That happened in the 8th century BC with the first colonization. Another fact, which is leading us to that conclusion is that Homer is more familiarized with the topography of Asia Minor, and its natural environment. Homer, is also using the Ionic dialect in his epic poems. Shouldn’t that ring a bell?

William Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905) -Homer and his Guide (1874)
“William-Adolphe Bouguereau (1825-1905) – Homer and his Guide (1874)” by William-Adolphe Bouguereau – Unknown. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William-Adolphe_Bouguereau_(1825-1905)_-_Homer_and_his_Guide_(1874).jpg#mediaviewer/File:William-Adolphe_Bouguereau_(1825-1905)_-_Homer_and_his_Guide_(1874).jpg

Homer was also believed to be a blind man. In this claiming we do not have much evidence. We also have to mention that Homer never wrote neither the Iliad nor the Odyssey. Homer was actually a storyteller and a singer, who used to visit palaces in order to entertain the king and the royal family. In that era, it was a very common phenomenon. Such people were called rapsods (storytellers/poets/singers combined, usually playing the lyre or the harp) from the Greek word ραψωδός (rapsodos). There is a contrary, though about Homer composing these poems, as many think that it is almost impossible for a man to be able remembering such long stanzas. Others, though tend to believe that Homer was not just a single person, but a group of storytellers that composed that poems together. That claiming though, is not considered strong enough.
Another thing that is also leading to a great contrary about Homer and his epic poems, is the differences in the language, the style and the mature of thought in both the Iliad and the Odyssey. The differences we must say, are many and of course noticeable. But we tend to accept the theory of Loginus an ancient Greek literature critic. He claimed that the differences that can be found in both of the epic poems, are a result of Homer’s aging. He claims that the Iliad is written while Homer was at a younger age. That is why, in our opinion, there are adventurous elements as well as battlefield scenes. The ideal romantic, war for love, is also a clue that we have to prove that Homer was at a young age when he created the Iliad. In the Odyssey, it is easy to find more mature minded thoughts and beliefs. It is the wisdom that is all over the poem, and the will of a man to return finally home and to spend the rest of his life there. It is obvious that Odysseus is tired of the 10 year war and wants some quiet and peace for the years that fate has defined for him. The adventure though is not missing. The two epic poems were commanded to be written down by the tyrant Peisistratos. Until his era, they survived by one telling the story to another.

Jean_Auguste_Dominique_Ingres,_Apotheosis_of_Homer,_1827
“Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827” από τον Ζαν Ωγκύστ Ντομινίκ Ενγκρ – wartburg.edu. Υπό την άδεια Public domain μέσω Wikimedia Commons – http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_Auguste_Dominique_Ingres,_Apotheosis_of_Homer,_1827.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Jean_Auguste_Dominique_Ingres,_Apotheosis_of_Homer,_1827.jpg

It is for sure difficult to be able to know, what exactly happened back then. The only thing that we have for sure is that the Iliad and the Odyssey are both magnificent creations that have survived through all those centuries. Nothing else can be compared to these two epic poems, in which I think the word epic fully describes them. The only thing that matters is that the name of Homer is totally connected with these two epic poems, and of course he is considered to be their creator. That has remained stained to the passage of so many eras, and will continue to be for sure.

Nikoleta Vemvetsou

Nikoleta Vemvetsou
Nikoleta Vemvetsou is 19 years old and she is currently studying History & Archaeology in the University of Ioannina, which was a childhood’s dream as she recalls. She writes articles on various topics including history, arcaeology, literature, poetry and more, in many blogs, newspapers and magazines as well as her own poetry. She is the co-founder of Literatology and also a co-chief editor of the Literatology team.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Continue reading Homer – The foundation of all civilization